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By Samer H Skaik Introduction Strategic thinking has engaged the brains of business leaders for centuries.
Many books and researches have been developed to cover the strategy subject because of its importance. Organizations always seek to adopt dynamic and effective strategic management to secure proper growth and remain competitive.
Strategic management is necessary to any organisation particularly those working in construction where there is a rapidly changing environment with adverse competition and surprises which may act as serious threats to organisation stability.
This essay will critically examine the strategic management contemporary thinking and theories and describe how strategists within an organisation competing in construction industry, could draw upon such thinking and theories in shaping the practice of strategy development.
Strategy concept Despite the vast literature on strategic management, there is no single or unique definition. According to Ansoffstrategic management is a systematic approach to position and relate the firm to its environment in a way which will ensure its continued success and make it secured from surprises.
Cole argued that strategic management is basically concerned with setting the organization headlines aims, choosing the most suitable goals for such aims and achieving both over time.
Strategy is then understood to be acting as a guiding map for the organisation to achieve its clear intention for development and growth. There are many other different definitions generated from the nature of strategy approach; but they all have one thing in common, which is the aim to maximize the organization performance by enhancing its capability of competition with other organizations functioning in the same competitive environment.
Although, strategic management as a concept can be defined, it seems to have a lot of ambiguities and complications when it is approached or developed. Strategy approaches There are different approaches to strategy. Strategists of today must deeply understand the widely used approaches at least, to be efficient in thinking strategically.
Whittington categorized strategy in four basic generic approaches: Classical, Evolutionary, Processual and Systematic which have different perspectives about strategy. In classical approach, the strategy is a rational process of deliberate calculation and analysis designed to maximize long term advantage.
French concluded that a radical change to open systems thinking, especially complex self-adapting systems, is required. In evolutionary approach, the situation is different. Competition is not overcome by detached calculation and analysis but by constant struggle for survival Cuizon, Evolutionary approach calls that successful strategies only emerge as the process of the natural selection delivers its judgment.
According to Whittingtonthis means it is the market not managers which makes the important choices. The approach considers markets too tough and unpredictable to plan for long term strategies but agrees with the classical approach objective of profit maximizing.
This creates an argument that the approach basic emphasis is on survival which obviously contradicts the objective of profit maximizing.
Processual approach is similar to evolutionary approach in the sense that it doubts the value of rational long term planning but it does not agree of leaving the profit-maximizing outcomes to the market since market is full of mess and confusion Cuizon, Processual approach states that strategy is an emergent process of learning and adaptation Whittington, It adopts a pragmatic view aiming to make the sophisticated processes simple in light of the fact that the environment is not ideal or perfect.
Systematic approach has a relativist position.
It believes that organisation is able to plan and act effectively. This means that there should be no separation between economic activities and social factors to ensure success. The schools are categorized in either prescriptive and practitioner-focused or descriptive and research-focused.
Prescriptive school tends to deal with strategy process by analysis. It is interested in how strategies should be formulated.
While descriptive school is more about how strategy arises and emerges Mintzberg et al. The schools were very different in language and concepts they use, that is why Segal-Horn argued that they may be genuinely distinctive and incomplete approaches.
Strategists agree on a common point that strategic management process includes analysis, choice, implementation and feedback. Prior to start with strategic management process for any firm, the strategist should ensure that the firm already has a well defined and clear mission and vision statements.
Success of any firm is usually judged by comparing its achievements with the set mission, goals and objectives. Strategic goals are often described as the core business since they are critical to success.
Organisations intend to make such goals and objectives explicit to employees to motivate them to achieve the targets as well as to shape the standards of the desired performance.
The leaders should develop a specific, inspiring, challenging and empowering vision Fellows et al.Classical Management Theory Essay Guide to Classical Management Theory inShare1 The classical management theory is a school of management thought in which theorists delved into how to find the best possible way for workers to perform their tasks.
The classical management.
Classical Management Theory Essay Guide to Classical Management Theory inShare1 The classical management theory is a school of management thought in which theorists delved into how to find the best possible way for workers to perform their tasks.
The classical management. The Socrates (aka leslutinsduphoenix.com) and Berkeley Scholars web hosting services have been retired as of January 5th, If the site you're looking for does not appear in the list below, you may also be able to find the materials by.
The Classical Management Theory is thought to have originated around the year and dominated management thinking into the s, focusing on the efficiency of the work process.
It has three schools of thinking: Scientific management, which looks at ‘the best way’ to do a job; Bureaucratic. Delegation strategies for the NCLEX, Prioritization for the NCLEX, Infection Control for the NCLEX, FREE resources for the NCLEX, FREE NCLEX Quizzes for the NCLEX, FREE NCLEX exams for the NCLEX, Failed the NCLEX - Help is here.
Sociological theory vs. social theory. Kenneth Allan proposed the distinction between sociological theory and social leslutinsduphoenix.com Allan's usage, sociological theory consists of abstract and testable propositions about society.
It often heavily relies on the scientific method, which aims for objectivity, and attempts to avoid passing value leslutinsduphoenix.com contrast, social theory, according to Allan.