Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Tolkien, the author and creator of the middle-earth themed novel, the Hobbit.
Charlemagne Charlemagneor Charles the Great, was king of the Franks,and emperor of the West, He founded the Holy Roman Empirestimulated European economic and political life, and fostered the cultural revival known as the Carolingian Renaissance.
In contrast to the general decline of western Europe from the 7th century on, the era of Charlemagne marks a significant revival and turning point.
Through his use of available resources such as the Church, Irish missionaries, and manorial and feudal institutionshis alliance with the papacy, and his numerous governmental and ecclesiastical reforms, Charlemagne was able to halt the political and cultural disintegration of the early Middle Ages and lay the foundation for strong central government north of the Alps.
Partially as a result of Charlemagne's activity, northern Europe emerged in the high and late Middle Ages as the dominant economic, political, and cultural force in the West.
In Pepin had become mayor of the palace, and in he deposed the last Merovingian king and was declared king of the Franks. Little is known about Charlemagne's childhood; inhowever, he participated in the anointment of Pepin as king by Pope Stephen II.
He was educated at the palace school primarily by Fulrad, the abbot of St. When Pepin died in OctoberCharlemagne came into his inheritance.
According to a general assembly of the Franks, Charlemagne and his brother, Carloman, were both proclaimed king and were to rule the kingdom jointly. In the division of the realm, however, Carloman received a larger and richer portion.
Under these circumstances ill feelings between the two brothers were inevitable, and the tension was heightened when Carloman refused to aid Charlemagne in his campaign against an uprising in Aquitaine.
Toward the conclusion of the Aquitanian campaign, from which Charlemagne emerged victorious, a fraternal war seemed certain; but Carloman died unexpectedly in and left Charlemagne the ruler of the entire kingdom. Territorial Expansion Charlemagne moved aggressively to remove those who threatened his suzerainty and to expand his power, especially in Italy.
The two renewed the alliance between the Frankish monarchy and the papacy, and shortly thereafter Charlemagne was crowned king of the Lombards at Pavia. The Frankish conquest of Italy—first of Lombardy in the north and later of the southern duchy of Benevento—had a twofold effect: During his Italian campaigns Charlemagne also declared war against the Saxons, who had menaced the northeastern frontier of Francia for several generations.
Begun inthis cruel and bitter war was finally concluded in by the annexation of Saxony by Francia and the enforced Christianization of the Saxon tribes. In the midst of the continual struggles to subdue the Saxons, Charlemagne carried on several major campaigns that resulted in territorial expansion.
Perhaps the most renowned of these was his expedition into Spain. Induring the return from this successful campaign, Charlemagne's rear guard, led by Count Roland of the Breton March, was ambushed by traitorous Basques near Roncesvalles. The story of this episode was immortalized in the epic poem The Song of Roland.
The historical importance of this campaign was the establishment of a military district called the Spanish March, a territorial buffer zone between Frankish Gaul and Moslem Spain. On his eastern frontier Charlemagne defeated Tassilo, the Duke of Bavaria, and made the duchy of Bavaria part of his empire.
He divided the western portion of the duchy into counties, each administered by a count loyal to the king; the eastern half formed a march, or border zone, called the Ost Mark Austriaprotected by a military duke, or margrave.
A journey into the Realm of Dungons and Dragons Essay. A. Pages:5 Words This is just a sample. To get a unique essay. We will write a custom essay sample on A journey into the Realm of Dungons and Dragons specifically for you for only $ $/page. Across the Vast Dragon Realm ; The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey and the Hero. Losing the War. Man is a bubble, and all the world is a stormJeremy Taylor, Holy Dying () My father owned a gorgeous porcelain tiger about half the size of a house cat. The Bible is a lot of things to a lot of people, but to Christians, especially, it is a source of inspiration and a guide to daily living.. To others, the Bible is a historical document and a source of controversy. To others still, the Bible is a self-contradictory mish-mash of arcane rules and proscriptions, mostly relevant to long-dead cultures in far away places.
Further to the east, the major power and ultimate threat to the Frankish realm was the vast Slavic kingdom of the Avars, or Huns, an Asiatic tribe which had settled along the upper Danube. Between and Charlemagne crushed the power of the Avars and made their kingdom a tributary state.
This victory opened the entire Danubian Plain to German colonization and the eastern expansion of Christianity—the beginning of the Drang nach Osten, or push to the East.
Holy Roman Empire By Charlemagne had succeeded in extending his overlordship from the Elbe River in the northeast to south of the Pyrenees in the southwest and from the North Sea to southern Italy. He ruled all of the Christianized western provinces, except the British Islesthat had once been part of the Roman Empire.
As the sworn protector of the Church, Charlemagne was in fact the political master of Rome itself. Thus his authority, which extended over a vast realm and included numerous peoples, rivaled that of the Roman emperors of antiquity. The papacy, at odds with Byzantium and its empress Irene over the question of iconoclasm the problem of image worship and the use of images in the Churchlooked to Charlemagne for protection and political leadership and regarded him as the true emperor of Latin Christendom and as the divinely appointed ruler of the earthly sphere.
Charlemagne endeavored to create unity and harmony within his vast realm and to promulgate laws and promote learning that would achieve his goals of empire. In his effort to assure his equality of rank with the Byzantine emperor, Charlemagne borrowed much from his eastern counterpart.
The Byzantine influence is most clearly seen in the Palace Chapel of Aachen Aix-la-Chapellewhich was a conscious imitation of the imperial residence at Constantinople.
In style, the building is based upon the church of S. Vitale in Ravenna, the former western Byzantine capital. Thus Charlemagne, in contrast to his Merovingian predecessors, who traveled incessantly throughout their realm, attempted to create a fixed capital parallel to that of Byzantium, and he resided at Aachen during most of his later years.
Character and Appearance The major contemporary record of Charlemagne's personal attributes and achievements is the Vita Caroli Magni, the first medieval biography, written by Einhard between and This biography is largely a firsthand account, since Einhard was a member of the palace school during Charlemagne's reign and was his close associate.
In the Vita is the actual physical description of the man who has since become one of the greatest legendary heroes of the Middle Ages.“Eaters of the Dead,” by noted storyteller, Michael Crichton, is an epic story told through the prose of a 10 th century Arabic writer by the name of Ahmad Ibn Fadlan.
Ibn Fadlan was a familiar to the Commander of the Faithful of Baghdad, Caliph al-Muqtadir, who was sent to deliver a message to a wealthy and prominent merchant.
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You can feel it when you go to work, when you go to church, when you pay your taxes. The long-awaited final volume of William Manchester's legendary biography of Winston Churchill. Spanning the years of , THE LAST LION picks up shortly after Winston Churchill became Prime Minister-when his tiny island nation stood alone against the overwhelming might of Nazi Germany.
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Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and .