To a Mouse This poem was included in the Kilmarnock Volume. Burns first book of poems. Burns had a knowledge of traditional verse forms but used the Standard Habbie so extensively that it has become known as the Burns Stanza To A Mouse On turning her up in her nest with the plough, Nov " is a friendly address. In this poem Burns identifies the animal with the human world, although the poem is essentially about himself.
Benzene is sometimes denoted as PhH. Phenyl groups are generally attached to other atoms or groups. For example, triphenylmethane Ph3CH has three phenyl groups attached to the same carbon center. Many or even most phenyl compounds are not described with the term "phenyl".
For example, the chloro derivative C6H5Cl is normally called chlorobenzenealthough it could be called phenyl chloride. In special and rare cases, isolated phenyl groups are detected: Although Ph and phenyl uniquely denote C6H5, substituted derivatives also are described using the phenyl terminology.
Monosubstituted phenyl groups that is, disubstituted benzenes are associated with electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions and the products follow the arene substitution pattern.
So, a given substituted phenyl compound has three isomers, ortho 1,2-disubstitutionmeta 1,3-disubstitution and para 1,4-disubstitution. A disubstituted Mouse representative compound trisubstituted benzene Mouse representative be, for example, 1,3,5-trisubstituted, or 1,2,3-trisubstituted.
Higher degrees of substitution, of which the pentafluorophenyl group is an example, exist, and are named according to IUPAC nomenclature.
In terms of its electronic properties, the phenyl group is related to a vinyl group. Phenyl groups tend to resist oxidation and reduction. Phenyl groups like all aromatic compounds have enhanced stability in comparison to equivalent bonding in aliphatic non-aromatic groups.
This increased stability is due to the unique properties of aromatic molecular orbitals. These chemical shifts are influenced by aromatic ring current and may change depending on substituents.
Preparation, occurrence, and applications[ edit ] Phenyl groups are usually introduced using reagents that behave as sources of the phenyl anion or the phenyl cation. Electrophiles attack benzene to give phenyl derivatives: These reactions are called electrophilic aromatic substitutions.
Representative compounds containing phenyl groups Atorvastatin Lipitora blockbuster drug featuring two phenyl and one p-fluorophenyl groups. It is used to lower cholesterol in people with hypercholesterolaemia. Fexofenadine Allegra, Telfastanother blockbuster drug, which features a diphenylmethyl group as well as a p- phenylene C6H4 group.
It is an antihistamine used to treat allergies. Phenylalaninea common amino acid.
Biphenylconsisting of two phenyl groups. The two rings tend not to be coplanar. Chlorobenzene or phenyl chloridea solvent.
Phenyl groups are found in many organic compounds, both natural and synthetic see figure. Most common among natural products is the amino acid phenylalaninewhich contains a phenyl group.
A major product of the petrochemical industry is " BTX " consisting of benzene, toluene, and xylene - all of which are building blocks for phenyl compounds.
The polymer polystyrene is derived from a phenyl-containing monomer and owes its properties to the rigidity and hydrophobicity of the phenyl groups. Many drugs as well as many pollutants contain phenyl rings.
One of the simplest phenyl-containing compounds is phenolC6H5OH. However, a significant contribution is the greater electronegativity of the sp2 alpha carbon in phenol compared to the sp3 alpha carbon in aliphatic alcohols.Website for the Texas House of Representatives.
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This server is the gateway to The Portable Dictionary of the Mouse Genome (over 20, gene loci), The Mouse Brain Library, databases on mouse brain size and structure, and online publications. MOJ Immunology Pre-Clinical Murine Models: Syngeneic Models for Immuno-Oncology Volume 2 Issue 4 - Joseph F Murphy* Charles River Laboratories, USA.
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Nov 25, · Representative Results A drawing of the mouse eye is shown with major structures labeled for reference, with arrows displaying the locations for both intravitreal and subretinal injection surgical procedures (arrowheads, Figure 1).