Primate and Canine Why use eye tracking in psychology and neuroscience? Eye tracking is used in these fields of research to understand the connection between what we see and how we react based on the information we process. New to eye tracking? Products and services Tobii Pro offers eye tracking systems for psychology and neuroscience studies in a controlled research setting, such as a lab, as well as examining human behavior in real-world environments, like in an office or home.
You need to understand these concepts and evaluate them, including how they differ from the multi-store model.
It would also be helpful to know about more recent research into reconstructive memory, such as that by Elizabeth Loftus.
Loftus argued that Reconstructive Memory implies that eyewitnesses to crimes will often be unreliable. This theory is significant for students in other ways: It goes against the typical features of the Cognitive Approach, since it rejects the idea of memory being like the sort of information processing used by a computer - it's much more creative but less reliable than that!
This is a theory with important implications for policing and the courts as well as journalism and everyday life. If memory is Reconstructive, then can it be trusted to tell us the truth? Can we trust our own memories? For example, in a Japanese sushi bar you might not know what behaviour is expected of you and it would be hard to make sense of what the other customers were doing and eating.
But if you paid attention, you would figure it out: Sometimes we assimilate new information, changing our schemas to fit what we have learned Sometimes we accommodate new information, changing our memories to keep our schemas intact and unchanged.
Bartlett explains how we do this by levelling and sharpening. Levelling involves removing or downplaying details from the memory and sharpening involves adding or exaggerating details.
Memory makes use of schemas to organise things. When we recall an event, our schemas tell us what is supposed to happen. The schemas might fill in the gaps in our memory confabulation and even put pressure on our mind to remember things in a way that fits in with the schema, removing or changing details.
He developed a study based on this game. Bartlett showed 20 students a Native American ghost story The War of the Ghosts which had unusual features. He asked them to read it then recall it on several occasions after a few hours, days, weeks or even years — a technique called serial reproduction and a Repeated Measures design.
Bartlett compared how the recalled versions of the story differed from the original. Participants shortened the story when they reproduced it, from words to words, with the shortest reproduction happening after the longest gap two years.
Participants also confabulated details, changing unfamiliar parts of the story to familiar ideas in line with their schemas: Participants rationalised the story, coming up with explanations for baffling parts of the story. He bumped into one student in the street two years later and asked her to reproduce The War of the Ghosts there and then.
The changes in the stories were also down to his own subjective opinion.
War of the Ghosts One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war-cries, and they thought: They escaped to the shore, and hid behind a log.
Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in the canoe, and they said: We wish to take you along. We are going up the river to make war on the people.Welcome to the official Stanford Prison Experiment website, which features extensive information about a classic psychology experiment that inspired an award-winning movie, New York Times bestseller, and documentary DVD.
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Tobii Pro offers eye tracking systems for psychology and neuroscience studies in a controlled research setting, such as a lab, as well as examining human behavior in real-world environments, like in an office or home.
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