Still, she says, the situation today is far from ideal. For many women, the most common method of birth control remains a Soviet-era holdover:
Relationships Between Contraception and Abortion: The relationship between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion continues to provoke heated discussion, with some observers arguing that use of abortion decreases as contraceptive prevalence rises and others claiming that increased use of family planning methods causes abortion incidence to rise.
Abortion trends are examined in countries with reliable data on abortion and with contraceptive prevalence information from two points in time showing increases in contraceptive use. The role of changes in fertility in mediating the relationship between abortion and contraception is also explored.
In seven countries—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Uzbekistan, Bulgaria, Turkey, Tunisia and Switzerland—abortion incidence declined as prevalence of modern contraceptive use rose.
In six others—Cuba, Denmark, Netherlands, the United States, Singapore and the Republic of Korea—levels of abortion and contraceptive use rose simultaneously. In all six of these countries, however, overall levels of fertility were falling during the period studied.
After fertility levels stabilized in several of the countries that had shown simultaneous rises in contraception and abortion, contraceptive use continued to increase and abortion rates fell.
The most clear-cut example of this trend is the Republic of Korea. Rising contraceptive use results in reduced abortion incidence in settings where fertility itself is constant. The parallel rise in abortion and contraception in some countries occurred because increased contraceptive use alone was unable to meet the growing need for fertility regulation in situations where fertility was falling rapidly.
International Family Planning Perspectives,29 1: If fertility and its other determinants sexual exposure, lactation and pathological infertility, for example remain constant, a rise in contraceptive use or in effectiveness of use must lead to a decline in induced abortion and vice versa.
Why, then, does the relationship between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion continue to provoke heated discussion? The explanation for these counterintuitive trends is clear.
In such societies, couples are at little or no risk of unwanted pregnancies. The advent of modern contraception is associated with a destabilization of high or "fatalistic" fertility preferences. Thus, as contraceptive prevalence rises and fertility starts to fall, an increasing proportion of couples want no more children or want an appreciable delay before the next childand exposure to the risk of unintended pregnancy also increases as a result.
In the early and middle phases of fertility transition, adoption and sustained use of effective methods of contraception by couples who wish to postpone or limit childbearing is still far from universal. Hence, the growing need for contraception may outstrip use itself; 4 thus, the incidence of unintended and unwanted pregnancies rises, fueling increases in unwanted live births and induced abortion.
In this scenario, contraceptive use and induced abortion may rise simultaneously.
As fertility decreases toward replacement level two births per womanor even lower, the length of potential exposure to unwanted pregnancies increases further. For instance, in a society in which the average woman is sexually active from ages 20 to 45 and wants two children, approximately 20 of those 25 years will be spent trying to avoid pregnancy.
Demand for abortion falls to zero only in the "perfect contraceptive" population, in which women are protected by absolutely effective contraceptive use at all times, except for the relatively short periods when they want to conceive, are pregnant or are protected by lactational amenorrhea.
The purpose of this article is to summarize what is known about the relationship between abortion and contraception. We start with a description of a recently proposed model of the relationship, 6 and provide empirical illustrations to assess the validity of this model.
We then review trends over time in the incidence of abortion and contraceptive use for specific countries based on published articles. Finally, we present a comprehensive examination of such trends in all countries thought to possess reliable trend data on abortion and contraceptive use and in which major changes in contraceptive prevalence or effectiveness have been recorded.
The latter two time periods constitute waiting time to conception, pregnancy and the postpregnancy period of insusceptibility. Abortion rates are also related to the prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use, and the probability of aborting unintended pregnancies.
The total fertility rate TFR equals the number of births a woman would expect to have over her lifetime under prevailing fertility rates, and it comprises two components: The total abortion rate is the number of abortions a woman would expect to have under prevailing abortion rates, and can be linked mathematically to the TFR using the parameters just described.
The mathematical links between the TFR and abortion rates and the derivation of these links have been described in detail. The practical implications of the model include the following: Early onset of sexual activity, leading to a longer sexual and reproductive span, will tend to be positively related to the abortion rate.Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union?
Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Abortion Remains Top Birth-Control Option In Russia. the most common method of birth control remains a Soviet-era holdover: abortion.
known about the effects of seasonal migration on fertility, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases in the countries of former Soviet Union, that have undergone . Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union? Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Contraceptive Use in the Countries of the Former Soviet Union: Two Decades of Transition have made possible the shift from abortion to contraception. As progress slows, and even ratio of modern to traditional method use rose dramatically with the percentage of IUDs.
Oral contraception was not available and more often. Abortion, fertility, and contraception in Ukraine In countries of the former USSR, including Ukraine, early childbearing was maintained until the s, and abortion played a dominant role in family planning. Read "Is “Abortion Culture” Fading in the Former Soviet Union?
Views about Abortion and Contraception in Kazakhstan, Studies in Family Planning" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of .
ABORTION, CONTRACEPTION, AND POPULATION POLICY IN THE SOVIET UNION Summary DESPITE its anti-Malthusian bias, current Soviet doctrine makes clear that . Family Planning is the result of the London Summit on Family Planning where more than 20 governments made commitments to address the policy, financing, delivery, and socio-cultural barriers to women accessing contraception formation and services.