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Cambodian-Vietnamese history[ edit ] Angkorthe seat of the Khmer Empirewas Studies of conflict khmer rouge vs to Vietnamese influence as early as the 13th century.
Vietnamese influence spread gradually and indirectly, and it was not until the early 19th century that Vietnam exercised direct control.
Following his death inVietnam colonised Cambodia; it was governed under a Vietnamese administration and termed a Vietnamese 'province'. During this time, Vietnamese forces made extensive use of Cambodian territory to transport weapons, supplies, and troops.
This relationship lasted throughout the Vietnam Warwhen Vietnamese communists used Cambodia as a transport route and staging area for attacks on South Vietnam. In accordance with the Geneva Accords negotiating the end of the French domination, newly created communist North Vietnam pulled all of its Viet Minh soldiers and cadres out of Cambodia; however, since the KPRP was staffed primarily by ethnic Vietnamese or Cambodians under its tutelage, approximately 5, Communist cadres went with them.
This clique became the genesis of the Khmer Rouge, and its doctrine was heavily influenced by the Maoist ideology. Lon Nol planned a slaughter of all Vietnamese people in Cambodia and a restoration of South Vietnam to a revived Champa state.
Many were slaughtered and dumped in the Mekong River at the hands of Lon Nol's anti-Communist forces. In its place, they hoped to create a classless society based entirely on worker-peasants. The radical ideologies and goals of the Khmer Rouge were alien concepts to the masses. Clashes between Vietnamese communists and Khmer Rouge forces began as early asand the following year Pol Pot signed a treaty codifying the 'friendship' between the Khmer Rouge and China.
Following the Khmer Rouge victory on 17 Aprilhe became Premier of Democratic Kampuchea and led his country in their war against Vietnam. Although both the North Vietnamese and the Khmer Rouge had previously fought side by side, the leaders of the newly created Democratic Kampuchea continued to view Vietnam with great suspicion, because they believed the Vietnamese Communists had never given up their dream of creating an Indochinese federation with Vietnam as the leader.
The Vietnamese military immediately responded to Kampuchean actions by launching a counter-attack and removing Kampuchean forces from Phu Quoc and Tho Chu, and then invading the Kampuchean island of Koh Wai. However, those discussions never materialised, and the Kampucheans claimed that Vietnam turned down both offers.
From the Vietnamese perspective, they were the patron of genuine Marxist—Leninist revolutions in South East Asia, so it was vital for them to exercise control over the Kampucheans and the Laotians.
However, their hopes were dashed as early asbecause North Vietnamese military formations operating in Khmer Rouge-occupied territories were occasionally subjected to armed attacks by their own allies. The Vietnamese position inside Kampuchea was further weakened after the end of the war, as there were no pro-Vietnamese elements left within the Kampuchean Communist Party.
From the Kampuchean perspective, the Vietnamese strategy to dominate Indochina involved infiltrating the communist parties of Kampuchea and Laos with Vietnamese-trained cadres. Then, in the context of the triumphalism, which prevailed over the Khmer Rouge leadership in a war that they claimed they had single-handedly defeated the "American imperialist", Democratic Kampuchea began to embark on a war against Vietnam.
On 18 Junethe Kampuchean Government replied by demanding that Vietnam remove all of its military units from the disputed areas, and create a demilitarised zone between the opposing forces.
Shortly afterwards, six divisions of the Kampuchea Revolutionary Army advanced about 10 kilometers 6. On 16 Decemberthe PAVN divisions, with support from elements of the Vietnam People's Air Forcecrossed the border along several axes with the objective of forcing the Kampuchean Government to negotiate.
By the end of DecemberVietnam had won a clear military victory over Kampuchea, as Vietnamese formations marched through Svay Rieng Province and only stopped short of entering the provincial capital. Despite the ferocity of the Vietnamese retaliation, the Kampuchean Government remained defiant.
During the withdrawal, the Vietnamese military also evacuated thousands of prisoners and civilian refugees, including future leader Hun Sen.
The Kampucheans went on further to proclaim that "our 6 January victory over the annexationist, Vietnamese aggressor enemy has given all of us greater confidence in the forces of our people and nation, in our Kampuchean Communist Party and our Kampuchean Revolutionary Army, and in our Party's line of people's war".
InVietnam was estimated to havesoldiers and tanks, supported by a 12,member air force with combat aircraft, including one squadron of light bombers. In comparison, Kampuchea had an army of 70, only a few heavy tanks, armoured vehicles, and limited air capability.
On 18 JanuaryChina attempted to mediate further negotiations between Kampuchea and Vietnam when Vice Premier Deng Yingchao travelled to Phnom Penh, where she was met with strong resistance by Kampuchean leaders.
During that same period, military setbacks experienced by the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army in the Eastern Military Zone prompted Pol Pot to label the region as a "nest of traitors".
Unable to withstand an attack from the Kampuchea Government, So Phim committed suicide while his deputy Heng Samrin defected to Vietnam. The Vietnamese Government immediately rejected the demand and, in response, two Kampuchean divisions penetrated up to 2 kilometers 1.
By that stage in the conflict, most surviving leaders of the Eastern Military Zone had escaped into Vietnam, where they assembled at various secret camps with the purpose of forming a Vietnamese-backed "liberation army" to fight against the Khmer Rouge regime.
It concluded that the Khmer Rouge regime was a proxy of China, which had been trying to fill the power vacuum following the withdrawal of the United States.
As such, China was identified as Vietnam's main enemy, and its client regime in Phnom Penh had to be removed by conventional military force, because the Vietnamese adaptation of the Maoist " people's war " doctrine had not been a success against the Khmer Rouge's security apparatus.
Furthermore, instead of sending congratulatory messages like they had done in the previous years, the Vietnamese media changed their tone and began referring to the Kampuchean Government as the "Pol Pot-Ieng Sary clique" as the Kampuchean military continued their campaign in Vietnam.
Again, the Vietnamese pushed the Kampuchean forces back into the provincial cities of Suong and Prey Veng and then pulled out. However, as they had done before, the Kampuchean Army moved its artillery back towards the border and continued shelling Vietnamese villages as though nothing had happened.
While Vietnam was laying the political foundation for the military campaign against Kampuchea, Soviet ships were reported to be unloading military hardware and ammunition in Cam Ranh Bay.
The Vietnamese government draftedmen into the military to replace earlier losses and augment its units along the border. Vietnam also shifted three divisions based in Laos south towards the Laos-Kampuchea border.The Khmer Rouge (/ k although thoroughly aware of the weakness of Lon Nol's forces and loath to commit American military force to the new conflict in any form other than air Modern research has located 20, mass graves from the Khmer Rouge era all over Cambodia.
Various studies have estimated the death toll at between , and. The Cambodian–Vietnamese War was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Cambodia after the Khmer Rouge: Inside the Politics of Nation Building.
New Haven: Yale University Press,, Vietnamese soldiers: 73,, 30, The Cambodian genocide (Khmer: The Khmer Rouge regime frequently arrested and often executed anyone suspected of connections with the former Cambodian government or foreign governments, as well as professionals, intellectuals, the Buddhist monkhood, and ethnic leslutinsduphoenix.comon: Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge governed Cambodia).
Studies of Conflict: Khmer Rouge vs. the Lon Nol Government Essay CONFLICT KHMER ROUGE VS THE LON NOL GOVERNMENT Of the many unjust horrors born of the 20th Century, from the jungles of Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge regime claims absolute victory.
It is the practice of Western nations to use the three stage theory of the Italian philosopher. The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict from , primarily between the communist Khmer Rouge and the Cambodian government. The Khmer Rouge won the war, creating a communist revolutionary.
STUDIES OF CONFLICT KHMER ROUGE VS THE LON NOL GOVERNMENT Of the many unjust horrors born of the 20th Century, from the jungles of Cambodia, .