The great philosophers of the enlightenment period

The Enlightenment was both a movement and a state of mind. The term represents a phase in the intellectual history of Europe, but it also serves to define programs of reform in which influential literati, inspired by a common faith in the possibility… The powers and uses of reason had first been explored by the philosophers of ancient Greece. The Romans adopted and preserved much of Greek culturenotably including the ideas of a rational natural order and natural law.

The great philosophers of the enlightenment period

History of Numbers — Decimal Number System — Binary Numbers — Scientists, Religionists and Philosophers Search for Truth Numbers and counting have become an integral part of our everyday life, especially when we take into account the modern computer.

Enlightenment | Definition, History, & Facts |

These words you are reading have been recorded on a computer using a code of ones and zeros. It is an interesting story how these digits have come to dominate our world. Numbers Around the World Presently, the earliest known archaeological evidence of any form of writing or counting are scratch marks on a bone fromyears ago.

But the first really solid evidence of counting,in the form of the number one, is from a mere twenty-thousand years ago. An ishango bone was found in the Congo with two identical markings of sixty scratches each and equally numbered groups on the back.

These markings are a certain indication of counting and they mark a defining moment in western civilization. They believed that the necessity for numbers became more apparent when humans started to build their own houses, as opposed to living in caves and the like.

The Early Enlightenment: 1685-1730

Anthropologists tell us that in Suma, in about 4, BCE, Sumerians used tokens to represent numbers, an improvement over notches in a stick or bone. A very important development from using tokens to represent numbers was that in addition to adding tokens you can also take away, giving birth to arithmetic, an event of major significance.

The great philosophers of the enlightenment period

More primitive societies, such as the Wiligree of Central Australia, never used numbers, nor felt the need for them. We may ask, why then did the Sumerians on the other side of the world feel the need for simple mathematics?

The answer of course, was because they lived in cities which required organizing. For example, grain needed to be stored and determining how much each citizen received required arithmetic. Egyptians loved all big things, such as big buildings, big statues and big armies.

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They developed numbers of drudgery for everyday labor and large numbers for aristocrats, such as a thousand, ten thousand and even a million. Two and a half thousand years ago, in BCE, Pythagorus founded his vegetarian school of math in Greece. Pythagorus was intrigued by whole numbers,noticing that pleasing harmonies are combinations of whole numbers.

Convinced that the number one was the basis of the universe, he tried to make all three sides of a triangle an exact number of units, a feat which he was not able to accomplish.

He was thus defeated by his own favorite geometrical shape, one for which he would be forever famous. His Pythagorean theorem has been credited to him, even though ancient Indian texts, the Sulva Sutras BCE and the Shatapatha Brahmana 8th to 6th centuries BCE prove that this theorem was known in India some two thousand years before his birth.

Later in the third century BCE, Archimedes, the renowned Greek scientist, who loved to play games with numbers, entered the realm of the unimaginable, trying to calculate such things as how many grains of sand would fill the entire universe.

Some of these intellectual exercises proved to be useful, such as turning a sphere into a cylinder. His formula was later used to take a globe and turn it into a flat map.

Romans invading Greece were interested in power, not abstract mathematics. They killed Archimedes in BCE and thereby impeded the development of mathematics. Their system of Roman numerals was too complicated for calculating, so actual counting had to be done on a counting board, an early form of the abacus.

Although the usage of the Roman numeral system spread all over Europe and remained the dominant numeral system for more than five hundred years, not a single Roman mathematician is celebrated today. The Romans were more interested in using numbers to record their conquests and count dead bodies.

Numbers in Early India In India, emphasis was not on military organization but in finding enlightenment. Indians, as early as BCE, devised a system of different symbols for every number from one to nine, a system that came to be called Arabic numerals, because they spread first to Islamic countries before reaching Europe centuries later.

What is historically known goes back to the days of the Harappan civilization 2, BCE.Immanuel Kant (–) is the central figure in modern philosophy. He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields.

Philosophers like David Hume and Adam Smith, both Scotsmen, tied Enlightenment ideals to politics, economic policies and more, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Age of Enlightenment - By Historical Period - The Basics of Philosophy

The book steps the reader through the development of the Enlightenment thinkers themselves. In addition to learning about the development of thought during the 18th century, I learned about Greek thinkers (stoic, skeptics and Epicureans), the Roman thinkers (especially Cicero), and the Renaissance period of thought.

Frederick the Great of Prussia, Maria-Theresa and Joseph II of Austria, Charles III of Spain, and Catherine the Great of Russia are often counted among these “enlightened despots.” French Revolution.

A revolution in France that overthrew the monarchy and is often cited as the end of the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment’s important 17th-century precursors included the Englishmen Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes, the Frenchman Renee Descartes and the key natural philosophers of the Scientific.

The concept of zero as a number and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India where by the 9th century CE practical calculations were carried out using zero, which was treated like any other number, even in the case of division.

Enlightenment | Definition, History, & Facts |